» How do clouds form?
» How do plants and animals utilize their food?
» How does an electric bell work?
» Where all does the rain water go?
» Why does a candle become short on burning?
» How do babies develop inside mothers?
For doing the above, students will study available literature, conduct simple activities and experiments, record observation, discussions with peers and teacher, reflect on how they arrived at questions, why they choose certain ways of conducting inquiry etc. This exercise needs to be facilitated by their teachers.
» Subject matter in sciences and social sciences
»Is inquiry in different domains of knowledge different?
»Science as information or inquiry.
»What do scientists look like?
»Probing, documenting and analyzing children‟s ideas related to science concepts.
» Different ways of conducting inquiry: setting up simple experiments and investigations in different contests
» Science- museums, field trips, projects and exhibition.
» Developing different assessment strategies including appropriate questions for paper pencil tests.
» Preparing Unit plans based on concept maps.
»Assessing teaching-learning materials such as books, films, multimedia packages for their relevance and age appropriateness.
» Issues of gender, language, culture and equity in science classes
» Introduction to science and society interface
»Do all people get enough water for domestic purposes and agriculture?
»Green revolution and sustainable farming practices.
»What has led to farmer suicides?
»Indigenous knowledge practices- metallurgy, heritage crafts.
»Loss of habitat and endangered species.
»Indigenous people and issues of survival.
Many such issues can be taken up for literature survey, discussions, campaigning through poster, public hearing, talks of concerned people like farmers and also experts in the field.
»Masters degree in science and social sciences.
» Bloom, J. W. (2006). Creating a Classroom Community of Young Scientists. New York: Routledge.
» Driver, R., Squires, A., Rushworth, P. and Wood- Robinson, V. (1994). Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into Children’s Ideas. New York: Routledge Falmer.
» Griffin, J. (2004). Research on students and Museums: Looking More Closely at the students in School Groups. Science Education, 88(suppl. 1), S59-S70.
» Harlen, W. (2006). Teaching, Learning and Assessing Science 5 – 12. UK: Sage.
» Harlen, W. Elstgeest, J. (1992). UNESCO Source Book for Science in the Primary School, New Delhi: NBT.
» Martin, D. J. (2009). Elementary Science Methods- A Constructivist Approach. Belmont CA: Thomson Wadsworth. 5th Edition.
» Wellington, J. J. and Osborne, J. (2001). Language and Literacy in Science Education. California: Open University Press. Chapter 6: Discussion in School Science: Learning Through Talking, Chapter 5: Writing for Learning Science.
» Driver, R. (1996). Young People’s Images of Science, Milton Keynes-London: Open University Press.
» Rampal, A. (1992). Images of Science and Scientists a study of School Teachers‟ Views. I. Characteristics of Scientists. Science Education. 76(4), 415-436.
» Brickhouse, N. (2001). Embodying Science: A Feminist Perspective. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(3), 282-295.
» Kurth, A., Anderson, W.C., Palincsar, S. (2002). The Case of Calra: Dilemmas of helping all students to understand Science, Science Education, 86, 287-313.
» Shiva, V. (2002). Water Wars Cambridge, USA: South end press.
» Kang, S et al (2004). Examining Students‟ Views on Nature of Science: Results from Korean 6th, 8th and 10th Grades, Science Education, 89(2). 314– 334.
» McComas, William F. (ed.) (1998). The Nature of Science in Science Education: Rationales and Strategies, Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers
» Okasha, S. (2002). Philosophy of Science– A very short Introduction UK: Oxford University Press.
» Schwartz, S. Renee et. al. (2004). Developing Views of Nature of Science in Authentic context: An explicit approach of Bridging the Gap between Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry. Science Education. 88(4), 610 – 645.
» Liewellyn, D. (2005). Teaching High School Science through Inquiry – A Case Study Approach, California: Corwin Press and NSTA Press
» NCERT, (2005). Focus group paper on Science Education, Position Paper. New Delhi: NCERT.
» Osborne Jonathan F. (1996). Beyond Constructivism. Science Education. 80(1), 53- 82
» Aikenhead, G. (2001). Integrating Western and Aboriginal Sciences: Cross Cultural Science Teaching. Research in Science Education, 31(3), 337-355
» Choksi, B. & Natarajan, C. (2007). The epiSTEME Reviews- Research Trends in Science, Technology and Mathematics Education. New Delhi: Macmillan India.
» Rampal, A. (1993). School science in search of a democratic order? In Kumar, K. (Ed.) Democracy and Education in India. New Delhi: NMML.
» Bal Vigyanik, Text books for Science, Class VI – VIII. Madhya Pradesh: Eklavya
» Centre for Science and Environment, Citizen's reports, New Delhi.
» Down to Earth, Centre for Science and Environment.
» NCERT, (2005). Syllabus for Classes at the Elementary Level. vol. I, New Delhi: NCERT.
» NCERT, (2008). Text books for Science, Class VI – VIII. New Delhi: NCERT.
» Tehelka Magazine.